Crater is the only city, or volcano crater, in the world that is inhabited and populated by people. It is home to nearly one million residents and covers an area of approximately 200 square kilometers. Its location on top of a volcano crater has made its climate the hottest in terms of temperature, both in summer and winter, compared to other districts in Aden Governorate.
The name “Crater” was given in the 1960s to the city of Seera, located south of the temporary capital of Yemen, Aden, after an English researcher discovered that this area of land is situated on a volcano crater. This discovery took place during the final years of British occupation of Aden, coinciding with the aerial flights of airplanes.
The historical researcher, Ali Dhaifullah, states that the city of Aden is located on a volcano crater. I recall an incident that occurred during the rule of Sultan Al-Muzaffar Yusuf bin Umar, where they lowered a rope made of fibers and leather into the volcano crater on the island of Seera. The rope was lowered, but when it was pulled back up, it was found to be burnt after descending a distance of only 50 meters.
Dhaifullah further adds that the mountain range surrounding the city of Aden is home to both dormant and active volcanoes. Additionally, there is a Hadith that speaks of the Day of Judgment, mentioning the emergence of fire in the city of Aden, which will gather people for the Day of Resurrection.
He added that the volcanoes in Aden include both dormant and active ones. The active volcanoes are located on the island of Seera, while the dormant ones extend along the Huqat Sea, reaching Mount Ihsan. Currently, some volcanic magma and gases are being emitted.
Aden is Considered the Largest Volcano on Earth
According to geological studies and exploratory research conducted on the volcanoes in Aden, it is considered the largest and biggest volcano on Earth. Other volcanoes around the world that have erupted in the past and left significant impact, or those dormant and inactive ones that have not yet erupted, are described as mere “fireworks compared to the volcano in Aden.”
The volcano of Aden is considered a cosmic phenomenon unlike any other, and it may be the last phenomenon that the Earth witnesses before the Day of Judgment, as mentioned in the prophetic tradition. The volcano of Aden is not limited to a specific mountain, but rather it is a series of disconnected mountains that extend from the Bab el-Mandeb area in the west to the city of Crater located on its crater.
The researcher in historical affairs, Abdulwahid Al-Humaidi, says that the city was named with this name, which means “volcano crater”, and the British gave it this name in previous centuries. He also added that the mountain range in Aden consists of dormant volcanoes. Yemen is considered part of a seismic line, which means that the movement of volcanoes in Djibouti can affect Aden and the city of Dhamar, which is located near Sana’a.
The Formation of the Volcano lasted A Million Years
The volcanoes in Aden originated over 6 million years ago, during the late Miocene and Pliocene epochs, and continued until 5.1 million years ago. This indicates that the construction of Aden’s volcano lasted for about a million years, with periods of cessation and rest for the volcano. The geological section of Aden’s volcano represents the last of these volcanic formations, and it is considered a complete volcano. However, its crater represents the last stages of explosive volcanic activity. The nature of Aden’s volcanic construction and its rock formation indicate that it is a composite cone volcano, according to studies estimating ages using potassium-argon dating.
According to reference studies and research documentation, the formation of Aden’s volcanoes is a result of the creation of the Gulf of Aden rift or trough in the Red Sea. This rift is a graben, where the Arabian Peninsula is moving apart in a counterclockwise divergent motion at a rate of 2 cm per year, towards the north and northeast. As a result, the Gulf of Aden widens, and this widening extends to the Red Sea.